European Union, The (EU)
- Homepage: http://europa.eu.int/
July 2002: "The European Union (EU) was set up after the 2nd World War. The process of European integration was launched on 9 May 1950 when France officially proposed to create 'the first concrete foundation of a European federation'. Six countries (Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands) joined from the very beginning. Today, after four waves of accessions (1973: Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom; 1981: Greece; 1986: Spain and Portugal; 1995: Austria, Finland and Sweden) the EU has 15 Member States and is preparing for the accession of 13 eastern and southern European countries." http://europa.eu.int/abc-en.htm
July 2016: "As the vote approached, pro-Brexit newspapers — including The Sun, The Daily Mail, The Express and The Telegraph — wrote stories that exaggerated how many immigrants were coming to Britain because of its E.U. membership and their effects on social services, reported that Queen Elizabeth II was secretly pro-Brexit, and quoted claims from pro-Leave politicians that Britain was sending 350 million pounds ($464 million) a week to the European Union that could be used instead to shore up the National Health Service."http://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/04/business/media/fair-play-in-a-fact-challenged-political-landscape
May 2014: 'What is clear is that with his re-election, Orbán has consolidated a well-orchestrated constitutional coup that has rattled the European Union’s complacency about being a club of well-behaved democracies. Since 2010, Fidesz has rewritten the Constitution without engaging any opposition parties and has granted overwhelming and unchecked power to its party leader, who in turn wasted little time in wresting control of every state institution from opposition hands, entrenching his political allies everywhere, bringing the judiciary to heel and radically centralizing political authority. The Fidesz constitutional “reform” has spawned a Frankenstate, a form of government created by stitching together perfectly normal rules from the laws of various EU members into a monstrous new whole. The component pieces of the Hungarian Frankenstate might have operated perfectly well in their original contexts, but combined in a new constitutional system, these once-normal rules produce abnormal results. As government spokespeople have said every time there is criticism of a particular aspect of the new constitutional order: that rule exists in Greece. Or Germany. Or the United Kingdom. It’s normal. End of story. But nowhere do all those rules exist together, except in the Hungarian Frankenstate.'http://www.thenation.com/article/179710/hungary-and-end-politics
February 2013: "Mr. Yaacoub’s testimony offered unaccustomed insights from an active Hezbollah member into the militant group’s secret operations. But it carried potentially greater significance for the European Union, which has thus far resisted following Washington’s lead in declaring the group a terrorist organization. Experts say that a conviction here would substantially raise the pressure on the bloc for such a designation."http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/21/world/europe/in-cyprus-trial-man-says-hezbollah-scouted-israeli-targets-in-europe.html
November 2011: "On the surface, Greece and Italy seem remarkably alike. Both countries have entrenched patronage networks that predate the European Union by centuries and suffocating regulations and work rules. And both Mr. Papademos, 64, and Mr. Monti, 68, the president of Bocconi University in Milan, have close ties to European Union officials, who are taking a strong hand in managing the affairs of both countries because the fate of the euro hangs in the balance."http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/11/world/europe/greece-and-italy-ask-technocrats-to-find-solution.html
June 2011: 'The European Union, the European Central Bank and the International Monetary Fund, known as the “troika,” say that is the only way out for a heavily indebted Greece, while some economists say the program resembles medieval bloodletting — a dose of pain highly unlikely to revive the patient.'http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/23/world/europe/23greece.html
February 2011: "A French company, 1plusV, which owns Ejustice.fr, one of three European companies that have already filed charges against Google, said it sent a supplementary complaint to the European Commission, the executive arm of the European Union."http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/23/technology/23google.html
May 2010: "BRUSSELS — The European Union fined a group of computer chip makers 331.3 million euros ($409 million) on Wednesday for price fixing in the first use of a new procedure that allows settlement of cartel cases in Europe."http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/20/business/global/20cartel.html
May 2010: 'Lebanon has been seeking approval from the European Union to register hummus as a national dish. "What we have been trying to do is just what the Greeks have done with feta cheese," said Fadi Abboud, president of The Association of Lebanese Industrialists, in January.'http://www.cnn.com/2010/WORLD/meast/05/09/lebanon.hummus/index.html
April 2010: "The details of the plan have been settled in negotiations here with officials of the European Union, the I.M.F. and the European Central Bank. Greek officials close to the discussions said the deal would include as much as 130 billion euros in aid over the next three years at reasonable interest rates. In return, the I.M.F. asked Greece to cut public sector spending by 8 billion euros in the 14 months after the plan was adopted. Economists called that provision crucial because past reform programs by the government have relied too much on overly optimistic assumptions about the collection of unpaid taxes."http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/01/business/global/01euro.html
April 2010: 'The reactions to the resolution, however, have been shockingly churlish and cynical. Some, especially but not only Bosnian Muslims, have complained that the resolution was worthless because it talks only of a “crime” and a “tragedy,” not a “genocide.” Others say Serbia’s government pushed this resolution through merely to curry favor with the European Union, which it desperately wants to join.'http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/02/opinion/02judah.html
July 2009: "It is also a beneficiary of €1.59 million in farm subsidies from the European Union, which last year doled out more than €50 billion, $71 billion, from the largest agricultural aid program in the world, one that provides financing to a wide variety of recipients beyond the farmers who plow the soil — German gummy bear manufacturers, luxury cruise ship caterers and wealthy landowners ranging from Queen Elizabeth II of England to Prince Albert II of Monaco."http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/17/business/global/17farms.html
June 3009: 'The EU filed a similar complaint the same day. In a statement, EU Trade Commissioner Catherine Ashton said, "The Chinese restrictions on raw materials distort competition and increase global prices, making things even more difficult for our companies in this economic downturn."'http://www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/content/jun2009/db20090623_262570.htm
June 2009: 'This August, U.S. airlines face their first big deadline to meet European Union rules on emissions linked to global warming. That's when carriers landing in Europe will have to submit proposals to the EU on how they plan to track such emissions. This is a first step toward tough European "cap-and-trade" laws requiring airlines to either slash greenhouse gases or pay for permits to emit, starting in 2012. U.S. airlines are watching these developments anxiously, in part because they are already struggling with weak travel demand and yo-yo'ing fuel prices.'http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/09_24/b4135060976622.htm
November 2008: "That would seem to argue for swift action to stop the pirates, and Germany did indeed draw international attention earlier this week when it announced that up to 1,400 military personnel members might take part in the mission to combat piracy. But the figure significantly overstated the likely deployment as part of a European Union mission in the region, and Parliament has yet to approve it. It also remains to be seen whether the rules of engagement give German sailors a free enough hand to fight the pirates."http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/29/world/europe/29pirates.html
August 2008: "NATO Secretary-General Jaap de Hoop Scheffer said Tuesday that Russian forces were still inside Georgia, despite a European Union-brokered cease-fire agreement to withdraw -- and despite Moscow's saying it had begun pulling out Monday."http://www.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/europe/08/20/georgia.russia.war/index.html
July 2008: "EU home affairs ministers are gathering in Brussels to discuss a number of proposals on immigration, attempting to set a common approach across member states."http://www.businessweek.com/globalbiz/content/jul2008/gb20080724_975265.htm
June 2008: "The new laws in the European Union require companies to demonstrate that a chemical is safe before it enters commerce -- the opposite of policies in the United States, where regulators must prove that a chemical is harmful before it can be restricted or removed from the market. Manufacturers say that complying with the European laws will add billions to their costs, possibly driving up prices of some products."http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/06/11/AR2008061103569.html
June 2008: 'A statement from the United States and the 27-nation European Union said Iran must undertake a "full and verifiable" suspension of its uranium enrichment program and disclose any prior weapons-related work to the International Atomic Energy Agency. Although it is suspected that Iran halted work on nuclear weapons several years ago, the inability of the IAEA to inspect its operations has left doubts about Tehran's intentions as it continues to expand and improve its uranium enrichment. Enriched uranium can be used for both nuclear energy and weapons.'http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/06/10/AR2008061000184.html
January 2008: "European Union officials insist that their bloc, which has negotiated fishing deals with Africa since 1979, is a scapegoat for Africa’s management failures and the misdeeds of other foreign fleets. They argue that African officials oversell fishing rights, inflate potential catches and allow pirate vessels and local boats free rein in breeding grounds."http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/14/world/africa/14fishing.html
November 2007: "The European Union, China’s biggest trading partner, accuses Beijing of holding the yuan at an artificially low level to assist Chinese exporters, contributing to the trade imbalance. China’s surplus is forecast to widen 30 percent this year, to 170 billion euros, ($252 billion)."http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/28/business/worldbusiness/28yuan.html
November 2007: "European Union environmental officials have determined that two kinds of genetically modified corn could harm butterflies, affect food chains and disturb life in rivers and streams, and they have proposed a ban on the sale of the seeds, which are made by DuPont Pioneer, Dow Agrosciences and Syngenta."http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/23/business/worldbusiness/23gene.html
November 2007: In the report, which is expected to be read closely by European Union officials who are assessing Serbia’s readiness to join the 27-member bloc, researchers concluded that “filthy conditions, contagious diseases, lack of medical care and rehabilitation and a failure to provide oversight renders placement in a Serbian institution life-threatening.” European Union officials said that such reports would be a basis for their assessments of a country’s record in upholding human rights, and of its readiness to enter the union.http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/14/world/europe/14serbia.html
October 2007: Across Switzerland, anti-foreigner and anti-Islamic attitudes have become so pervasive on the streets, in politics and within governmental institutions that the United Nations, European Union, Amnesty International and Switzerland's own Federal Commission Against Racism have expressed alarm in recent months.http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/10/08/AR2007100801464.html
August 2007: Greece has one of the worst records in the European Union on environmental issues, and on forest protection in particular. Environmental groups say recycling is in its infancy, development is largely unregulated, and protected areas neglected.http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0827/p01s03-woeu.html
April 2007: The European Union’s election observer mission said it had serious concerns about the state elections, urging that in some states election officials should “undertake a comprehensive investigation and give serious consideration to re-running the process.” A coalition of Nigerian community organizations said that in 10 states the results were so flawed that they “cannot be said to have reflected the will of the people,” Reuters reported.http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/17/world/africa/17nigeria.html
January 2007: With a newly empowered Germany at the helm, the European Union is making surprising strides toward expanding legal immigration into the bloc as a whole for the first time.http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0117/p01s04-woeu.html
October 2006: The United States and the European Union failed to meet a Saturday deadline to conclude a permanent new agreement on the sharing of airline passenger data, an issue that has raised serious privacy concerns in Europe. But both sides said talks will continue and flights will not be affected.http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/09/30/AR2006093001022.html
March 2006: As the hoped-for entry draws near, Romania's experience illustrates how expansion of the European Union is changing not just the union but the states that join. Like eight other East European nations that entered in 2004, Romania is busy erasing the legacy of half a century of communism and trying to build institutions that bear the stamp of approval of E.U. headquarters in Brussels.http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/03/11/AR2006031100170.html
February 2006: The argument was outlined in a document Microsoft delivered confidentially to European Union antitrust authorities Feb. 15. The company made its response public Thursday amid its intensifying antitrust problems in Europe. E.U. antitrust authorities have 'moved the goal posts on us but have deliberately refused to articulate' what will satisfy them, said Horacio Gutierrez, Microsoft's general counsel for Europe.http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/02/23/AR2006022301033.html
July 2005: Since then, the court's decision has been awaited as an important test not just of the European warrant but of the larger principle that once the European Union has enacted a law and a member has ratified it, the European law takes priority over national laws, whether in the realm of criminal procedure or agricultural subsidies.http://www.nytimes.com/2005/07/19/international/europe/19germany.html
October 2004: NKARA, Turkey, Oct. 2 - Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan, who has staked his political reputation on leading Turkey into the European Union, said Saturday that Turkey would not accept any affiliation with the union that falls short of full membership.http://www.nytimes.com/2004/10/03/international/europe/03ankara.html
Role Name Type Last Updated Owner of (partial or full, past or present) ANEC Organization Apr 29, 2010 Owner of (partial or full, past or present) European Commission Organization Oct 14, 2007 Owner of (partial or full, past or present) European Court of Justice (CURIA) Organization Oct 1, 2006 Owner of (partial or full, past or present) European Parliament Organization Oct 19, 2006 Owner of (partial or full, past or present) Europol Organization Feb 4, 2013 Financial Supporter of (past or present) Internet Watch Foundation (IWF) Organization May 17, 2010 Organization Executive (past or present) Jacques Barrot Person Jun 21, 2008 Cooperation (past or present) Prime Minister David Cameron Person Jul 4, 2016 Opponent (past or present) Nigel Farage Person Jul 4, 2016 Opponent (past or present) Mayor Boris Johnson Person Jul 4, 2016 Organization Executive (past or present) Christine Lagarde Esq. Person Jun 1, 2014 Organization Head/Leader (past or present) Per Stig Moller Person Advised by (past or present) Dr. John Edwin Mroz Ph.D. Person Feb 7, 2012 Organization Head/Leader (past or present) Herman Van Rompuy Person Oct 27, 2011 Organization Head/Leader (past or present) Jose Socrates Person Nov 21, 2007 Organization Executive (past or present) Javier Solana Person Sep 24, 2005
Articles and Resources
Date Fairness.com Resource Read it at: Apr 25, 2004 Greek Cypriots Reject a U.N. Peace Plan
QUOTE: European officials sharply criticized the Greek Cypriot leadership last week, accusing it of misleading Europe into believing that it would support reunification after Cyprus was invited to become a member in 2003.
New York Times Mar 22, 2004 EU Ruling Could Further Alter Windows Bundling
QUOTE: When European Union regulators rule this week in their antitrust case against Microsoft Corp., their decision will...likely to set a precedent for when and where Microsoft can integrate other software into the operating system...
ZDnet Feb 16, 2004 Troubled times for Ukrainian Liberty
QUOTE: President Kuchma's critics at home and abroad say Svoboda's difficulties are part of a campaign to muzzle the free media.
British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) Jan 27, 2004 Britain Poised to Approve Medicine Derived From Marijuana
QUOTE: A drug derived from marijuana is expected to be available soon in Great Britain.... Some experts believe that the drug would be considered illegal in the U.S. while others claim it would help revamp existing marijuana laws.
New York Times Jan 18, 2004 Northwest Gave U.S. Data on Passengers
Washington Post Dec 19, 2003 Impeachment Process Begins in Lithuania
QUOTE: The Lithuanian Parliament formally began impeachment proceedings Thursday against the country's embattled president, who stands accused of close links to an alleged Russian mobster.
Washington Post Dec 04, 2003 Should You Know Your Banker?
QUOTE: Financing based on reputation quickly turns into financing based on connections, a closed system where what matters isn't what you know but whom.
New York Times Jul 21, 2003 ECONOMIC THREATS SEEN JEOPARDIZING SYRIA'S REFORM EFFORTS
QUOTE: three years into a presidency he inherited with the death of his father, Assad has struggled to liberate an economy entangled by a web of elites and their vested interests. Among those who stand to lose from genuine reform are members of the powerful Makhlouf family, which is led by Assad's mother, Aniseh.
NewsBank Jul 13, 2003 'Honor' Killings in Turkey Defy Efforts to End Them
QUOTE:the elected Parliament of this predominantly Muslim nation approved a sweeping human rights law that, among other things, abolished a provision that often reduced the prison terms for murders committed in the name of "family honor."
New York Times Jun 20, 2003 Do sanctions against Burma work?
QUOTE: There is mounting international outrage at the Burmese military rulers' detention of pro-democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi.
British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) Jun 18, 2003 Parliament in Italy Passes Immunity Law for Berlusconi
QUOTE: Critics say the laws are tailor-made to help Mr. Berlusconi, who is Italy's wealthiest man, elude prosecution for questionable business deals made before he took office.
New York Times Mar 26, 2003 Passenger-Screening Plan Assailed: EU, Budget Office Among Those Saying System Is Not Ready
QUOTE: ...the European Union [EU] said it is concerned that the [Transportation Security Administration] TSA's new program would conflict with EU laws protecting personal data because the computer program would screen foreigners who fly to the United States. A program "with access to data banks in the European Union would raise issues with EU data-protection legislation," said a source with the European Commission. "The U.S. government should consult with us on such matters in order to avoid potential conflict."
Washington Post Jan 09, 2003 E.U. Ban on Genetically Modified Food Criticized
QUOTE: The Bush administration's top trade official announced today that he wanted to file a case against the European Union for its ban on genetically modified food, calling the European position "Luddite" and "immoral" for leading to starvation in the developing world.
New York Times Jan 03, 2003 Slovakian Roma forced to ghettos
QUOTE: "...a trend of violent segregation of Romanies (commonly called Gypsies) in eastern Slovakia."
Christian Science Monitor Nov 14, 2002 R.J. Reynolds Accused Of Money Laundering: Suit Also Alleges Smuggling of Cigarettes to Iraq
QUOTE: The new EU lawsuit goes far beyond any previous allegations, accusing RJR of direct complicity in facilitating not only money laundering schemes but also other criminal enterprises.
Washington Post Oct 30, 2002 Europe Fines Nintendo $147 Million for Price Fixing
QUOTE: The European Commission fined Nintendo, the Japanese video game maker, $147 million today for colluding with seven European distributors to fix prices on its products.
New York Times Oct 10, 2002 Justices Hear Challenge to Copyright Law: Extensions Stifle Access, Opponents Say; Government Claims Congressional Prerogative
QUOTE: ...a much-anticipated oral argument on a novel constitutional issue: For how long may Congress extend copyrights on literature, art, music and film?
Washington Post Oct 09, 2002 U.S. Presses for Total Exemption From War Crimes Court
QUOTE: The United States hopes to sign agreements with 190 countries exempting all Americans from the reach of the court in their territories.
New York Times Oct 01, 2002 Europeans to Exempt U.S. From War Court
QUOTE: The 15 nations of the European Union agreed today to exempt American soldiers and government officials from prosecution for war crimes at the International Criminal Court, an issue that had troubled trans-Atlantic relations for several months.
New York Times Aug 11, 2002 France May Limit Prostitution
QUOTE: Interior Minister Wants to Deport Sex Workers From Outside EU
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