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Ethics/Morals/Fairness/Justice (conceptual)

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92 Articles and Resources. Go to:  [Next 42]

Date Resource Read it at:
Apr 14, 2016 Investigating the algorithms that govern our lives

QUOTE: Venkatasubramanian is a computer science professor at the University of Utah. He’s someone who thinks about algorithmic fairness, ever since he read a short story by Cory Doctorow published in 2006, called “Human Readable.” The story takes place in a future world, similar to ours, but in which all national infrastructure (traffic, email, the media, etc.) is run by “centralized emergent networks,” modeled after ant colonies. Or in other words: a network of algorithms. The plot revolves around two lovers: a network engineer who is certain the system is incorruptible, and a lawyer who knows it’s already been corrupted. “It got me thinking,” says Venkatasubramanian. “What happens if we live in a world that is totally driven by algorithms?”

Columbia Journalism Review (CJR)
Nov 26, 2015 One concept will dominate the Paris climate talks, and it has nothing to do with the climate

QUOTE: concept is “differentiation.” But we all call it fairness. Developed countries have benefitted from emitting unlimited carbon until quite recently, reaping the economic rewards. Now, countries like India want to lift millions out of poverty. Why shouldn’t they be allowed to emit as much as their predecessors on the path to prosperity?

Jan 19, 2013 Morality: It's not just for humans

QUOTE: De Waal isn't sure that his monkeys have what a philosopher would call a "concept of justice" in an intellectual sense. But the emotional reactions researchers have observed indicates that there is, at a more basic level, a sense of justice among them....In the new study, de Waal and colleagues had chimpanzees and, separately, young children, play an "ultimatum game."

CNN (Cable News Network)
Dec 26, 2012 Are We Born With a Sense of Fairness? Does fairness come standard with every newborn, or is it something that we (hopefully) develop as we mature?

QUOTE: Given the role of variability in the evolution of fairness, we thought it would be instructive to investigate at what age variability in the sense of fairness develops in children.

Pacific Standard
Nov 13, 2012 Unequal or Unfair: Which Is Worse? Inequality is a symptom; unfairness is the disease.

QUOTE: Fairness—or lack of it—is central to human relationships at every level, from a marriage between two people to disputes involving war and peace among the nations of the world. I believe fairness is what we need to focus on, not inequality—though I readily acknowledge that high inequality in wealth and income is corrosive to society.

Psychology Today
Aug 31, 2012 The Evolution of Fairness

QUOTE: A multimedia investigation asks: Can examining how inequality began in a hunter-gatherer society teach us how to fairly share the costs and consequences of how we use diminishing natural resources?

Pacific Standard
Feb 27, 2012 Are rich people more unethical?

QUOTE: A series of experiments conducted by psychologists at the University of California, Berkeley, suggests that people who are socially and financially better-off are more likely to lie, cheat, and otherwise behave unethically compared to individuals who occupy lower rungs of the socioeconomic ladder.

CNN (Cable News Network)
Jan 24, 2012 In Address, Obama Makes Pitch for Economic Fairness

QUOTE: President Obama pledged on Tuesday night to use government power to balance the scale between America’s rich and the rest of the public, trying to present an election-year choice between continued leadership toward an economy “built to last” and what he called irresponsible policies of the past that caused an economic collapse.

New York Times
Nov 12, 2011 Keep government out of mind-reading business (My Take)

QUOTE: Now, for the first time in human history, we are peering into the labyrinth of the mind and pulling out information, perhaps even information you would rather we did not know....If my right to privacy means anything, it must mean the right to keep my innermost thoughts safe from the prying eyes of the state, the military or my employer.

CNN (Cable News Network)
Oct 09, 2011 Kids May Develop a Sense of Fairness Earlier Than Thought: Toddlers who are quick to share toys act surprised when food isn't divided equally, study finds

QUOTE: Researchers from the University of Washington found that 15-month-old babies could tell the difference between equal and unequal portions of food. This perception, the study authors noted, affected the babies' willingness to share.

Jun 28, 2011 In South Korea, fairness is the new ideal

QUOTE: Experts say the fairness fixation reflects dismay at what rapid change has wrought: a widening gap between the rich and the poor, and residual corruption. For President Lee Myung-bak, this is more than a passing problem, because middle-class economic concerns and a string of frauds and scandals have convinced South Koreans that theirs is anything but the “fair society” that he has touted.

Washington Post
May 16, 2011 Nice Guys Finish First

QUOTE: Different interpretations of evolution produce different ways of analyzing the world. The selfish-competitor model fostered the utility-maximizing model that is so prevalent in the social sciences, particularly economics....But if cooperation permeates our nature, then so does morality, and there is no escaping ethics, emotion and religion in our quest to understand who we are and how we got this way.

New York Times
Jan 25, 2011 Ousted Lebanese Leader Swallows Rivals’ Bitter Pill

QUOTE: Betrayed, he called himself after the choice of Hezbollah, Najib Miqati, was named as the prime minister designate on Tuesday. A victim of his own lies, say his foes, who engineered his ouster by bringing down his government this month. Perhaps it was both, in a place one politician called “a chemical equation, not a country.”

New York Times
Oct 12, 2010 The Internet and the death of ethics (Workers' Edge)

QUOTE: The fight for an ethical Internet may be a lost cause, if only because people's moral compasses appear to be irreparably damaged....I'm starting to think there are no ethics in business--my own experience does not refute this assertion. It could be that the lack of negative consequences for immoral, unethical behavior is perceived as tacit approval of such activities.

May 06, 2010 The Problem of Fairness, and David Ortiz: A Case Study

QUOTE: Now it is a month into the 2010 season, and Ortiz is once again off to a terrible start....Should Ortiz be released for the good of the team? After less than 30 games and a hundred at bats? Is that fair? What is fair, in this situation? Well, it depends what you mean by “fair”...

Ethics Alarm
Sep 18, 2009 During Ramadan, fasting isn't for everyone

QUOTE: Each year as Muslims across the world observe Ramadan... other members of the faith face the challenge and occasional awkwardness that comes with eating and drinking in public during daylight hours.

Los Angeles Times
Aug 06, 2009 Tomgram: John Feffer, Their Martyrs and Our Heroes

QUOTE: Given the plethora of suicide missions in the Western tradition, it should be difficult to argue that the tactic is unique to Islam or to fundamentalists.

May 29, 2009 A Promise to Be Ethical in an Era of Immorality

QUOTE: the issue of ethics and corporate social responsibility has taken on greater urgency among students about to graduate. While this might easily be dismissed as a passing fancy — or simply a defensive reaction to the current business environment — business school professors say that is not the case.

New York Times
May 28, 2009 Glowing Green Monkeys Illustrate Important but Controversial Advance

QUOTE: Japanese researchers added genes that caused the animals to glow green under an ultraviolet light....But because the work marks the first time members of a species so closely related to humans have had their genetic makeup permanently altered, the research set off alarms that it marked a troubling step toward applying such techniques to people...

Washington Post
May 10, 2009 Taliban-Style Justice Stirs Growing Anger: Sharia Being Perverted, Pakistanis Say

QUOTE: distinction between the Taliban version of Islam -- often described as narrow-minded, intolerant and punitive -- and what might be called the mainstream Pakistani version of Islam, which is generally described as moderate and flexible.

Washington Post
Dec 23, 2008 A Highly Evolved Propensity for Deceit

QUOTE: Deceitful behavior has a long and storied history in the evolution of social life, and the more sophisticated the animal, it seems, the more commonplace the con games, the more cunning their contours. In a comparative survey of primate behavior, Richard Byrne and Nadia Corp of the University of St. Andrews in Scotland found a direct relationship between sneakiness and brain size.

New York Times
Dec 12, 2008 Chaos Begets Chaos: A new study supports the controversial claim that people can be morally swayed by the state of their surroundings.

QUOTE: It's not that good people turned bad, either. One goal simply surpassed another in importance. In the case of the mailbox, the desire for cash superceded the desire to behave appropriately, because others already hadn't.

Seed Magazine
Dec 08, 2008 Why dogs can sense fair play

QUOTE: researchers suspected that other species that live together could be sensitive to fair play -- or a lack of one.

CNN (Cable News Network)
May 03, 2008 When Law Prevents Righting a Wrong (The Nation)

QUOTE: The obligation to keep a client’s secrets is so important, they say, that it survives death and may not be violated even to cure a grave injustice — for example, the imprisonment for 26 years of another man, in Illinois, who was freed just last month.

New York Times
Apr 13, 2008 If You Think Your Taxes Are Unjust, Just Think Again

QUOTE: Is the U.S. tax code fair? That question is always in the air at this time of year, as Americans grumblingly prepare their tax returns and politicians promise them gentler, or at least more equitable, tax policies in the future. But how do we decide what's "fair"?

Washington Post
Mar 21, 2008 Socialized Compensation

QUOTE: The ongoing bailout of the financial system by the Federal Reserve underscores the extent to which financial barons socialize the costs of private bets gone bad...Compared to the cold shoulder given to struggling homeowners, the cash and attention lavished by the government on the nation’s financial titans provides telling insight into the priorities of the Bush administration.

New York Times
Feb 19, 2008 Defender in the Case of a Slain 7-Year-Old Girl Has His Admirers: Other Lawyers

QUOTE: Whatever it takes to acquit Nixzmary’s stepfather, Cesar Rodriguez, of one of the more notorious child murders in the city’s recent history, Mr. Schwartz says he is morally and professionally obligated to try it, if it is legal. In Mr. Schwartz’s ethical universe, the decision to represent Mr. Rodriguez has the air of a sacred mission.

New York Times
Feb 04, 2008 Some Campuses Decide Tobacco Company Money Is ‘Tainted’

QUOTE: [Officials at a Texas university] decided two months ago to draw a line, and refuse all tobacco money for student groups, as well as for faculty research. “What it came down to for us was the ethical dimension,” said [one official]. “The leadership of the school felt that in some sense it was tainted money, that it is money gotten from a product that is significantly harming people.”

New York Times
Oct 15, 2007 If It's Legal, It's Ethical…Right?

QUOTE: The recent case of a TV crew allowing a woman to drive while drunk reminds us, when the law falls short, refer to the higher authority of ethics

Jul 15, 2007 Fair Taxes? Depends What You Mean by ‘Fair’

QUOTE: DO the rich pay their fair share in taxes? This is likely to become a defining question during the presidential campaign. At a recent fund-raiser for Hillary Clinton, the billionaire investor Warren E. Buffett said that rich guys like him weren’t paying enough.

New York Times
Apr 27, 2007 Fairness

QUOTE: Fairness is a funny illusion. It’s one of our most useful illusions, but it’s an illusion nonetheless.

Dilbert Blog
Dec 16, 2006 What Should a Billionaire Give – and What Should You?

QUOTE: In the same world in which more than a billion people live at a level of affluence never previously known, roughly a billion other people struggle to survive on the purchasing power equivalent of less than one U.S. dollar per day. .... Philanthropy on this scale raises many ethical questions: Why are the people who are giving doing so? Does it do any good? Should we praise them for giving so much or criticize them for not giving still more?

New York Times
Nov 30, 2006 Mark McGwire, steroids, and the Hall of Fame

QUOTE: from the moment [McGuire] was listed Monday as a candidate for pro baseball's hallowed hall, a buzz ensued over whether allegations that the former St. Louis Cardinal had used performance-enhancing drugs - including steroids - were serious enough or certain enough to keep him out.

Christian Science Monitor
Oct 31, 2006 An Evolutionary Theory of Right and Wrong

QUOTE: Marc D. Hauser, a Harvard biologist, has built on this idea to propose that people are born with a moral grammar wired into their neural circuits by evolution. In a new book, Moral Minds (HarperCollins 2006), he argues that the grammar generates instant moral judgments which, in part because of the quick decisions that must be made in life-or-death situations, are inaccessible to the conscious mind.

New York Times
Sep 06, 2006 In Europe, a search for what defines the EU's moral identity: Newer EU members struggle to promote a more traditional morality.

QUOTE: if EU member states started to turn their back on the European community and declare moral issues to be an internal affair, that would spell trouble, he says. "If, for instance, Poland were to introduce the death penalty and say, 'Well, we don't care what Europe feels about this because it's a matter of national sovereignty,' then I would be concerned."

Christian Science Monitor
Sep 06, 2005 Fame & Fortune: Bruce 'The Ethics Guy' Weinstein

QUOTE: ...even if one files for bankruptcy and no longer has a legal obligation to repay one's creditors, that doesn't mean one does not have an ethical obligation to pay them back. When we borrow money, whether from a friend, relative or a bank, we're making a promise to re-pay our creditors. Even if bankruptcy laws allow us to wipe out our debt, the people who loaned us money did so in good faith and rightly expect to be re-paid.
Apr 01, 2005 How Animals Do Business

QUOTE: Humans and other animals share a heritage of economic tendencies--including cooperation, repayment of favors and resentment at being shortchanged

Scientific American
Sep 12, 2004 Playing Favorites With Kids and Money

QUOTE: Should siblings be treated equally? Ask most parents -- and children -- that question, and the immediate answer is typically: Yes, of course parents should treat each child the same. But ask again, in a different way, and the answer is rarely so clear-cut.

Wall Street Journal, The (WSJ)
Jul 30, 2004 The Fair Society Defined

QUOTE: I wondered what theme might appeal to Americans of a large variety of backgrounds and act as a unifier, unlike themes that see the country as two nations or seek to serve some classes at the expense of others. Fairness came to mind because studies show that even small children have a sense of fairness.

Etzioni, Amitai
Jul 20, 2004 High Court Asked to End Executions Of Minors

QUOTE: A broad array of individuals and groups... urged the Supreme Court yesterday to declare that it is unconstitutional to execute people for crimes they committed before turning 18. The United States is one of five countries that execute juvenile offenders...

Washington Post
Mar 18, 2004 A Fair Society: Responsibility for all, Responsibility from all

QUOTE: A fair society is not merely respectful of rights. It is responsible for all, and expects all to be responsible.

Etzioni, Amitai
Sep 18, 2003 Genetic Basis to Fairness, Study Hints

QUOTE: ...suggests that the monkeys have a sense of fair treatment and respond negatively when their expectations are violated...

New York Times
Feb 06, 2003 Poetic Licenses: Are "Choose Life" license plates free speech or state-sponsored infomercials?

QUOTE: Has the state, by opening up license plates as a forum for private speech, incurred a constitutional obligation to allow speakers of every viewpoint equal access to that forum?

Jan 20, 2003 Who Will Bear the Burden?

QUOTE: ...competing ideals of tax justice. One says that taxes shouldn't penalize success; the other says people should pay their "fair" share.

Washington Post
Jan 17, 2003 Women speak out against 'sexism' in the Kirk

QUOTE: The Church of Scotland is facing a growing backlash from women in its ranks amid accusations that it suffers from institutional sexism.

Scotsman News
Oct 20, 2002 Mission Impossible

QUOTE: ''A Bed for the Night'' explores the dangers of engagement: the overreach, confusion, and sheer hubris that occur when organizations violate neutrality in the name of higher, and perhaps unachievable, ideals.

Boston Globe
Oct 09, 2002 Buildings donated by 'corrupt' CEOs face name shame

QUOTE: But now, those big donors have tarnish around their names. Some of them are in jail, some are indicted and accused by the government of being crooks. Should those names be sandblasted off the walls?
Sep 18, 2002 Blair Calls for Wealth Redistribution

QUOTE: Tony Blair today used a pre-conference speech to promise to "redistribute power, wealth and opportunity" to combat poverty and deliver public services.

Guardian Unlimited
Sep 01, 2002 Early Deliberations: A developmental psychologist investigates how children think about fairness and exclusion.

QUOTE: Thus children could judge exclusion based on gender or race as legitimate because it confirms stereotypic norms, or they might view it with indifference. Alternatively, extensive research shows that fairness judgments emerge during preschool years regarding play. As children get older, their sense of fairness extends to resource allocation and concern for others’ welfare.

Southern Poverty Law Center
Aug 11, 2002 Adopt a Church

QUOTE: Would it be unethical to list ourselves as Christian in the application with the assumption that there is a greater likelihood that we would be chosen to be parents?

New York Times

92 Articles and Resources. Go to:  [Next 42]